In order to evaluate the immune effects of canine rabies vaccines in urban areas in Changsha City and to identify all factors that could affect the qualified rate of immune antibodies，2 137 blood samples were collected from dogs in 41 designated sites from 2015 to 2018 to qualitatively detect their serum antibodies against rabies by ELISA，then the trend of antibody level and relevant factors were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the qualified rate of antibodies against rabies was 46.13% in 2015，and increased to 73.39% in 2017，then slightly decreased to 71.11% in 2018，which was rising overall. Comparative analysis of different regions showed that，the qualified rate was steadily increasing in both Furong District and Yuhua District，and had rapidly increased in Kaifu District since 2017，but slightly decreased in other three districts in 2018. According to the analysis on all influence factors，the qualified rate was influenced by dog's age，frequency of vaccinations，detection time after vaccination and manufacturer of vaccines to some extent，rather than dog's sex and types of vaccines. In general，better immune effects were achieved in urban areas in Changsha City，except some districts where the qualified rate was lower with the risk of virus infection. After first vaccination，it was necessary to strengthen booster immunization towards dogs，especially young and old dogs，so as to ensure their antibodies at a high level.