本文概述了马梨形虫病的流行特点及其诊断方法，并分析了各种诊断方法的优缺点。病原学诊断可快速诊断病例，但大量检测时操作较为困难；ELISA 技术已经十分成熟，是世界动物卫生组织推荐的标准诊断方法；CFT可准确诊断早期（急性）感染，但无法识别经过药物已产生抗补体反应的个体；PCR方法可直接检测病原体核酸，敏感性较高，但操作较为复杂；real-time PCR特异性强、灵敏度高、稳定性强，但所需仪器昂贵；LAMP技术敏感、简便、快速，但常出现假阳性结果。除病原学检测外，以上方法大多不适于田间检测。因此，需要建立一种操作简便、诊断准确、成本低廉的田间检测方法，未来研究方向将主要侧重于免疫学和分子生物学。
In this paper，the epidemiological characteristics and diagnostic methods of equine piroplasmosis were summarized，and all advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic methods for the disease were analyzed. Specifically，etiology detection method could be used to rapidly identify the disease，however，it was more difficult to test a large number of samples；ELISA technology had been well developed，which was recommended by OIE；CFT could be used to accurately detect early（acute）infections，but failed to identify individuals that had produced anti-complement reactions via drugs；PCR method，with high sensitivity，could be used to directly detect nucleic acids of pathogens，however，its operation was more complex. Real-time PCR was with the advantages of strong specificity，stability and high sensitivity，but relevant instruments were expensive；LAMP technology often produced false positive results although it was sensitive，simple and rapid. In conclusion，most of the above methods were not suitable for field detection，except the etiology detection method. Therefore，a field detection method with the characteristics of convenient operation，accurate diagnosis and low lost needed to be developed，the study on which should mainly focus on immunology and molecular biology in the future.