非洲猪瘟病毒（African swine fever virus，ASFV）荧光PCR检测是防控非洲猪瘟（African swine fever，ASF）的关键环节。江苏省动物疫病预防控制中心对两家具备ASF检测资质的实验室，进行了阳性样品复核，发现检测结果存在假阳性。为避免实验室检测中出现检测失误，本文分析了导致ASFV检测假阳性结果的原因：实验室检测功能区域设置以及人员、物品流向不合理；检测人员操作不规范、不熟练，未在独立的生物安全柜中进行样品提取与试剂配制；实验室通风不良、清洁消毒不彻底，样品或提取模板间产生交叉污染，PCR试剂、产物、阳性质粒发生污染。为此，从实验室结构、环境、操作等方面提出控制建议：严格实验室功能分区与管理，规范各种试验操作与流程，加强实验室通风和消毒，控制试验中产生PCR污染的相关因素；同时省级实验室要加强对基层实验室的培训、指导和监督，使其在ASF防控中发挥应有的关键作用。本文为从事ASF等重大动物疫病PCR检测的实验室，在提高检测结果准确性和可靠性方面提供了参考。
The fluorescent PCR is a key method for prevention and control of African swine fever（ASF）. Positive samples from two laboratories with ASF testing qualification were rechecked by Jiangsu Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center，and false-positive result was found. In order to avoid any errors in laboratory testing，the causes leading to such result were analyzed as follows：unreasonable distribution of function areas for laboratory testing and unreasonable movement of personnel and materials；sample extraction and reagent preparation were not carried out in independent biosafety cabinets by inspectors who were unskilled with irregular operation；the two laboratories were with poor ventilation and halfway cleaning and disinfection，resulting in cross contamination among samples or extraction templates，and PCR reagents，products and positive plasmids were contaminated. In view of the above，some suggestions were put forward from the aspects of the structure，environment and operation of laboratories，such as，the function areas should be strictly divided and managed，all test operations and procedures should be standardized，laboratories should be intensively ventilated and disinfected，relevant factors for PCR pollution occurred during the test should be controlled，and laboratories at grassroots level should be trained，guided and supervised by provincial laboratories，so that these grassroots labs could play the due roles in prevention and control of ASF. Some references were hereby provided to improve the accuracy and reliability of test results by laboratories for ASF and other major animal diseases.