In order to make clear the contamination status and prevalence rule of avian influenza virus（AIV）in live poultry markets and their surrounding environment in Urumqi City of Xinjiang in winter，85 whole blood samples and 143 cotton swabs（including 103 cloacal/throat cotton swabs and 40 environmental cotton swabs）were collected from live poultry including chickens，ducks，geese and pigeons in a market for detection of immune antibodies and nucleic acids of AIV by serological assay and real-time fluorescent quantitative（RT-PCR），and the virus subtypes of nucleic acid positive samples were determined. The results showed that，for the 85 blood samples，32 were qualified for the antibody against H5（Re-11）strain with the qualification rate of 37.6%，34 were qualified for the antibody against H5（Re-12）strain with the qualification rate of 40%，and 46 were qualified for the antibody against H7（Re-2）strain with the qualification rate of 54.2%. For the 143 cotton swabs，36 were positive for AIV with the positive rate of 25.17%，including 29 positive swabs from live poultry，with the positive rate of 28.15%，and 7 positive environmental swabs collected outside the trading area，with the positive rate of 17.5%. For these 36 nucleic acid positive samples，3 samples were confirmed as H5 subtype with the positive rate of 8.33%，22 were confirmed as H9 subtype with the positive rate of 61.11% and 11 samples were undetermined with the positive rate of 30.56%. It was concluded that the infection rate of AIV in the market was high，and the qualification rates of antibodies against H5 and H7 subtypes after compulsory vaccination were relatively low，indicating the risk of outbreak and spreading existed. Thus，live poultry markets should be thoroughly disinfected and managed to reduce the risk of AIV spreading.