Q fever is a kind of zoonotic infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. For the purpose of providing theoretical reference for prevention and control of Q fever，the factors for its spreading were summarized and analyzed according to its etiological and epidemiological characteristics. Coxiella burnetii parasitized in living cells and reproduced in special vesicles of cell cytoplasm of human or animals. The host spectrum of Q fever was extensive，in which，domestic ruminants were the main infectious source of human Q fever. The pathogens could be secreted along with vaginal secretions，urine，milk and feces of infected ruminants，and be spread to human via aerosols. Tick was the major vector of Q fever among animals and could spread the disease through sucking blood. Q fever was widely spread almost all the world，especially in tropical and subtropical regions；the prevalence of Q fever was affected by climate factors，especially in the warm and windy spring. At present，Q fever could be effectively prevented by application of antibiotics，hygiene disinfection and vaccination. Considering the wide distribution，strong infection and the result of leading to a variety of animal or human diseases，more attention should be paid to Q fever prevention and control through strengthening daily monitoring and development of specific drugs，and an effective prevention and control system should be established.