对宁夏某地炭疽疫情的风险评估
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S851.3

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联合国粮农组织-中国兽医现场流行病学培训项目


Risk Assessment on an Anthrax Epidemic in a County of Ningxia
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    摘要:

    2016年5月,宁夏同心县暴发一起羊炭疽疫情,共有4只羊发病死亡。当地相关部门依据《炭疽防治技术规范》,对疫情进行了处置。为降低炭疽疫情再次发生的风险,避免形成新的疫源地,对疫点内不同途径的炭疽杆菌释放风险、疫区内易感动物和养殖户的暴露风险进行了定性评估。结果显示:本次疫情中的一处死亡羊只无害化处理点释放病原的风险高,未知私埋点和自然疫源地的病原释放风险为中等;紧急免疫动物的暴露风险低,但新生羔羊和超过免疫保护期的牛羊存在一定的暴露风险;因当地存在家畜宰杀、放血、剥皮等习俗,牛羊饲养者的暴露风险为中等。根据评估结果,建议对病原释放风险较高的死亡羊只处理点重新进行无害化处理;每年对疫区所有易感动物进行免疫;落实好禁牧政策,严禁私埋病死动物;加大对易感人群炭疽防控知识的宣传教育。

    Abstract:

    In May 2016,an epidemic outbreak of sheep anthrax was reported in Tongxin county of Ningxia,the deaths involved 4 sheep. According to Technical Specification for Prevention and Treatment of Anthrax,the outbreak was handled by local veterinary department. To prevent the recurrence of anthrax and to avoid forming new epidemic source,a qualitative assessment was given to evaluate the release risk of anthrax via different routes,as well as the exposure risk for these susceptible animals and farmers in epidemic areas. Results revealed that one bio-safety disposal place of death cases was of high release risk,while the medium release risk in unknown private burial sites and natural epidemic places. When it came to the exposure risk,probability of animals with emergency vaccination was low,in comparison with certain risks for newborn lambs and the immunized cattle and sheep that were beyond protective period,and a medium risk for the breeders on account of habits of slaughtering,bloodletting and peeling at local place. On the basis of assessment results,the following recommendations were put forward,including doing bio-safety disposal again in the processing place,conducting vaccination for all the susceptible animals at epidemic region every year,earnestly implementing the policy of banning grazing,strictly prohibiting private burial of the dead animals,strengthening advocacy campaign of anthrax prevention and control towards susceptible people.

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张淼洁,李靖宁,左兴文,杨文欢,张和平,杨林,王晓亮.对宁夏某地炭疽疫情的风险评估[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2017,34(3):25-29.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2017-03-07
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