上海市狂犬病调查与分析
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S851.34

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上海市科技兴农重点攻关项目(沪农科创字﹝2019﹞第3-3号);上海市农业领军人才项目


Investigation and Analysis on Rabies in Shanghai City
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    摘要:

    为了解上海市人间和畜间狂犬病流行状况以及犬免疫情况,探查感染来源和防控漏洞,采用摸底调查和数据分析方法开展调查,并分析流行原因。调查显示,自2009年以来,上海市几乎每年都有人间狂犬病病例出现;2019年5—6月发生的3起犬咬伤事件中,有2起确定感染来源为流浪犬;2011—2018年上海市免疫犬的狂犬病免疫合格率一直保持在75%以上,但2019年1—5月流浪犬猫的抗体阳性率仅为11.32%,远低70%的国际要求。结果表明,上海市流浪犬中存在狂犬病流行,并导致了人的发病死亡,它是上海市狂犬病流行的主要风险源。因此,要加强流浪犬的管理、监测和免疫,降低流浪犬的数量,提高流浪犬的免疫密度和免疫质量;加强防控技术培训和防治知识宣传,提高公众防范意识;完善相关法规,进一步明确相关部门的工作职责。本调查探明了上海市狂犬病流行的主要原因,并提出了可行性建议,为上海市控制和消灭狂犬病提供了参考。

    Abstract:

    In order to identify the prevalence of human and livestock rabies and the status of immunization in dogs,and to find out all sources of infection and defects of prevention and control measures,an investigation was carried out by means of door-to-door interviews and dada analysis,and then relevant reasons herein were analyzed. As it was investigated that the cases of human infection had been confirmed almost every year since 2009;2 out of 3 cases of dog bites that occurred during May to June of 2019 were caused by stray dogs;the qualification rate of immunity against rabies in dogs with vaccination had remained above 75% from 2011 to 2018,however,the positive rate of antibody in stray dogs and cats was only 11.32% from January to May 2019,which was far lower than that required by international standards(70%). The results showed that the rabies was prevalent among stray dogs in the city,which had posed the major risk scource for spreading the disease and resulted in some cases of human death. In response to the above,some suggestions were put forward,such as,for stray dogs,strengthing management,monitoring and vaccination,reducing their quantity and improving their immune density and quality;enforcing trainings on prevention and control technologies and publicizing relevant knowledge to improve public awareness;and perfecting relevant laws and regulations and clarifying the responsibilities assigned to relevant departments. It was concluded that the major reasons for the prevalence were identified in the city,and some feasible suggestions were put forward in this study,so as to provide some references to control and eliminate the disease.

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刘健,李鑫,卢军,俞向前,夏炉明,葛杰,杨显超,陶田谷晟,于讳茹,王建,赵洪进.上海市狂犬病调查与分析[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2020,37(1):16-19.

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