In order to investigate residents' awareness for brucellosis and the status of prevention in Qilihe District，Lanzhou City，Gansu Province，and to support population intervention，a questionnaire on knowledge，attitude and practice（KAP）was designed in 2020 to investigate 91 persons with occupational exposure in the region，and 218 employees who were involved in non-livestock exposure industry were randomly investigated. The results showed that，60.19%（186/309）of 309 persons had heard of brucellosis，which was statistically different（P＜0.01）subject to different ethnic groups，ages and whether occupational exposure group or not. The residents over 30 years old from Ethnic Han and breeding farmers knew more about the disease；the morbidity rate of brucellosis was 2.59%（8/309），which was higher in the populations with occupational exposure than those with non-livestock exposure（P＜0.001）；the awareness for brucellosis knowledge was generally poor，which was different in different genders and occupations（P＜0.05），the item“brucellosis could be transmitted through digestive tract”listed in the bottom column of awareness rate was statistically different between breeding farmers and practitioners（P＜0.01）；the protective behaviors of breeding farmers were generally good，but low protection rate was provided through drinking water separately between human and animals and timely vaccination. The results showed that the awareness of brucellosis prevention in Qilihe was not high as a whole，and the occupational protection behaviors of the breeders were good as a whole，but there were shortcomings in protection，with high exposure risk. Therefore，for the purpose of improving residents' awareness for prevention and control of brucellosis，awareness activities should be strengthened and targeted guidance should be provided for different populations by departments responsible for disease prevention and control.