非洲猪瘟疫苗和病原学诊断技术研究进展
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S851.3

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国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC0840405);云南省技术创新人才培养对象项目(2018HB076)


Research Progress on Vaccines and Etiological Diagnostic Technologies of ASF
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    摘要:

    非洲猪瘟疫情给我国养猪业造成了巨大经济损失,因而开发安全高效的疫苗和建立快速可靠的病原学诊断方法对该病防控具有重要意义。本文综述了当前国内外非洲猪瘟(African swine fever,ASF)疫苗和病原学诊断技术的研究进展,以期为今后ASF疫苗研制和诊断技术选择提供参考。疫苗研究方面,目前仍无安全有效疫苗上市。灭活疫苗不能提供有效的免疫保护力,已不作为今后研究的重点方向;减毒活疫苗存在生物安全隐患,疫苗接种后的安全性、有效性等有待进一步评估;基因工程疫苗与前两种疫苗相比,成本低且安全性高,但对强毒株攻击的有效保护作用不强。目前认为利用天然分离或敲除非洲猪瘟病毒(African swine fever virus,ASFV)毒力基因的致弱毒株开发重组减毒活疫苗具有较好的利用前景,但其安全性和有效性仍有待进一步研究。目前在没有有效疫苗免疫的前提下,建立快速、可靠的早期病原诊断方法对于ASF疫情确认和控制同样至关重要。近年来,ddPCR、LAMP、RPA、CRISPR/Cas等新兴诊断技术相继涌现。这些方法具有操作更简单、检测速度更快、特异性更强等方面的优势,但其检测能力与适用场景尚存在一定不足,还需要进一步完善。未来ASFV病原学检测的研究方向应建立在成本低廉、简单便捷、高效准确、集成化的基础上,或可将多种诊断方法联合应用,各取所长。

    Abstract:

    As huge economic loss has been caused by an outbreak of African swine fever(ASF)to pig industry in China,it would be of great significance to develop a safe and effective vaccine as well as a rapid and reliable etiological diagnosis method. The advance in vaccines and etiological diagnostic technology against ASF in China and other countries was summarized in the paper to support future development of vaccines and selection of an appropriate diagnostic technology. At present,no effective vaccine had been available. Inactivated vaccine failed to provide effective immunity,which had been no longer studied as a priority;for attenuated live vaccines,the safety and effectiveness after vaccination need to be further evaluated due to its potential biosafety hazards;compared with the above vaccines,genetic engineering vaccine was with low cost and high safety,but failed to provide effective protection against virulent strains. At present,it was prospected to develop a recombinant attenuated live vaccine by use of attenuated strains naturally isolated from or knocked out from the virulence gene of African swine fever virus(ASFV),but its safety and effectiveness should be further studied. It would be also important to develop a rapid and reliable early diagnosis method for confirmation and control of an ASF outbreak although no effective vaccine was available. In recent years,ddPCR,LAMP,RPA,CRISPR/Cas and other emerging technology were presented,which were characterized by more simple operation,rapid detection and stronger specificity,but their capacities were not enough for applicable conditions,which should be further improved. Future studies on ASFV etiology detection should be based on low cost,simple operation,high efficiency,accuracy and integration,or simultaneous application of several diagnostic methods,making good use of each strength.

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杨佳萍,寇美玲,谢佳芮,苗海生.非洲猪瘟疫苗和病原学诊断技术研究进展[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2021,38(11):93-100.

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