湖南省郴州市黄牛弓形虫病血清流行病学调查及风险因素分析
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Seroepidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors Analysis on Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cattle in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province
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    摘要:

    为查明湖南省郴州市黄牛弓形虫感染情况并探讨其可能的风险因素,应用间接血凝试验(IHA)检测该地区9个牛场710份黄牛血清样品中的弓形虫抗体,使用统计学方法计算黄牛弓形虫血清阳性率,使用SPSS V23.0软件,对不同风险因素的弓形虫感染情况进行卡方检验。结果显示:受检黄牛血清样本中检出弓形虫抗体阳性共64份,抗体阳性率为9.0%;所有被检牛场均存在感染,其中资兴市牛场抗体阳性率(14.5%)最高;春季(12.9%)和夏季(13.7%)的弓形虫抗体阳性率高于秋季(5.1%)和冬季(4.1%),差异显著(P<0.05);规模牛场的弓形虫抗体阳性率与散养牛场弓形虫抗体阳性率分别为8.9%和9.1%,差异不显著(P>0.05);卫生状况差的牛场弓形虫抗体阳性率(12.9%)高于卫生状况好的牛场(7.4%),差异明显(P<0.05);母黄牛弓形虫抗体阳性率(9.1%)略高于公黄牛(8.6%),差异不明显(P>0.05);所有年龄段黄牛均可感染弓形虫,其中3岁以上黄牛的弓形虫抗体阳性率最高(14.8%),而3岁以下的黄牛弓形虫抗体阳性率为7.8%~9.7%,差异不显著(P>0.05);有猫存在的牛场弓形虫抗体阳性率为12.8%,而没有猫的牛场弓形虫抗体阳性率为2.9%,差异显著(P<0.05)。郴州市北部牛场感染弓形虫的风险约是西部的8.4倍,南部约是西部的8.6倍,中部约是西部的4.6倍;有猫存在的牛场感染弓形虫的风险是没有猫的4.8倍;黄牛在夏季感染弓形虫的风险约是在冬季的3.7倍,卫生状况差的牛场黄牛感染弓形虫的风险约是卫生状况好的1.9倍。结果表明:郴州市黄牛养殖场弓形虫感染普遍,而牛场地理位置、猫的存在、季节和牛场卫生状况是黄牛弓形虫感染的主要风险因素,故应根据主要风险因素制定相应的防控措施,做好牛弓形虫病防控,以确保人类安全。

    Abstract:

    In order to investigate the infection of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province,and to find out its possible risk factors,710 serum samples were collected from 9 cattle farms in the region to detect antibody against Toxoplasma gondii by indirect hemagglutination test(IHA),to calculate the positive rate by the statistical method,and to conduct Chi-square test for different risk factors using SPSS V23.0 software. The results showed that 64 positive samples were detected,with positive rate of 9.0%;all detected farms were infected,especially the farms in Zixing City(14.5%);the positive rates in springs(12.9%)and summers(13.7%)were higher than those in falls(5.1%)and winters(4.1%),with obvious difference(P<0.05);the positive rates were 8.9% and 9.1% respectively in intensive farms and free-range households,with slightly difference(P>0.05);higher in the farms with poor health conditions(12.9%)compared to those with good conditions(7.4%),with obvious difference(P<0.05);slightly higher in female cattle(9.1%)compared to the male ones(8.6%),with little difference(P>0.05);highest in the cattle above 3-year old(14.8%),and 7.8% to 9.7% in those less than 3-year old,with slightly difference(P>0.05),although all cattle could be infected;and was 12.8% in the farms where cats were available,and 2.9% in those without any cat,with obvious difference(P<0.05). The risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection was about 8.4 times in the farms in north Chenzhou City higher than that in the west,8.6 times in the south than that in the west,4.6 times in the middle than that in the west,4.8 times in the farms with cats than those without cats,3.7 times in autumns than in winters,and 1.9 times in the farms with poor conditions than in those with good ones. In conclusion,Toxoplasma gondii was widely distributed in the farms in Chenzhou City,and its main infection risk factors included geographical location of the farms,the presence of cats,seasons and health conditions in the farms,corresponding measures should be accordingly developed based on the above risk factors to prevent and control toxoplasmosis,and to ensure human safety.

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陈文承,陈芬,扶亚祥,唐春华,谢雯琴.湖南省郴州市黄牛弓形虫病血清流行病学调查及风险因素分析[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2022,39(5):12-17.

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