基于单抗的免疫分析方法及其在兽药残留检测中的应用
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S859.79

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Introduction to the Immunoassay Based on Monoclonal Antibody and Its Application in the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues
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    摘要:

    兽药残留检测是监督控制药物滥用的手段之一。免疫学技术基于抗原对抗体的特异性识别,具有灵敏度高、稳定性好、操作简单、快捷等优点被广泛应用于兽药残留检测。该方法的关键是要获得高质量的特异性抗体,因而单抗技术的应用与发展,对免疫分析方法的普及起了巨大推动作用。为此,本文针对单抗的制备以及基于单抗的免疫分析方法在兽药残留检测领域的应用进行简要综述。目前酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)与胶体金免疫层析法(GICA)是应用最广泛的基于单抗的兽药残留检测方法,主要用于检测抗生素、化学合成抗菌药、激素类和β-受体激动剂类药物、镇静剂类药物,其操作简单,灵敏度高,但均需要对样品进行一定的前处理,实际操作中较易出现假阳性,反应时间长等问题。为提高检验的敏感度、稳定性、特异性、便捷性,正在研究新型的免疫分析技术,如结合采用表面增强拉曼光谱(SERS)技术和金标检测试纸(LFA)实现超灵敏检测,采用微流控免疫分析芯片技术联合ELISA实现高通量检测等。诸多研究将为基于单抗的免疫分析方法在兽药残留检测中的应用提供新思路。

    Abstract:

    The detection of veterinary drug residues is one of the means to monitor and control drug abuse,while immunological techniques,based on the specific recognition of antigens to antibodies,are widely used to detect drug residues due to its advantages including high sensitivity,good stability,simple operation and rapidity. As the key of the method is to obtain high-quality specific antibodies,the application and development of monoclonal antibody technology has played a great role in promoting the popularization of immunoassay methods. To this end,the preparation of monoclonal antibodies and the application of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay in the detection of veterinary drug residues were briefly reviewed in this paper. At present,enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and colloidal gold immunochromatography(GICA)were mostly used,which were mainly used to detect antibiotics,chemically synthesized antibiotics,hormones and β-receptor agonist drugs and sedatives,but all the samples to be detected should be pre-treated to some extent,although the method was with simple operation and high sensitivity,and it was prone to false positive in practice,with long reaction time. In order to improve the sensitivity,stability,specificity and convenience of test,new immunoassay technologies were being studied,such as ultra sensitive detection by combining surface enhanced raman spectroscopy(SERS)technology and lateral flow assay(LFA),high-throughput detection by microfluidic immunoassay chip technology in combination with ELISA,etc.,all such studies would provide new ideas for future application of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay in the detection of veterinary drug residues.

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张小雨,李木子,秦立得,王晓茵,孙晓亮,曹旭敏,宋翠平,古少鹏,赵思俊.基于单抗的免疫分析方法及其在兽药残留检测中的应用[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2022,39(6):100-106.

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