The detection of veterinary drug residues is one of the means to monitor and control drug abuse，while immunological techniques，based on the specific recognition of antigens to antibodies，are widely used to detect drug residues due to its advantages including high sensitivity，good stability，simple operation and rapidity. As the key of the method is to obtain high-quality specific antibodies，the application and development of monoclonal antibody technology has played a great role in promoting the popularization of immunoassay methods. To this end，the preparation of monoclonal antibodies and the application of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay in the detection of veterinary drug residues were briefly reviewed in this paper. At present，enzyme linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA）and colloidal gold immunochromatography（GICA）were mostly used，which were mainly used to detect antibiotics，chemically synthesized antibiotics，hormones and β-receptor agonist drugs and sedatives，but all the samples to be detected should be pre-treated to some extent，although the method was with simple operation and high sensitivity，and it was prone to false positive in practice，with long reaction time. In order to improve the sensitivity，stability，specificity and convenience of test，new immunoassay technologies were being studied，such as ultra sensitive detection by combining surface enhanced raman spectroscopy（SERS）technology and lateral flow assay（LFA），high-throughput detection by microfluidic immunoassay chip technology in combination with ELISA，etc.，all such studies would provide new ideas for future application of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay in the detection of veterinary drug residues.