皂苷作为疫苗免疫佐剂的研究进展
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Advances in the Studies on Saponins as a Vaccine Immune Adjuvant
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    摘要:

    皂苷是一类普遍存在于多种植物中的三萜糖苷类化合物,在中医药中具有重要地位。皂苷具有广泛的生物活性,尤其具有免疫调节和免疫刺激作用,可显著增强机体的免疫应答。皂苷作为佐剂不仅能延长疫苗的免疫周期,减少接种次数,也能调控免疫相关基因的表达,使干扰素调节因子、肿瘤坏死因子等的基因表达水平显著上调。皂苷佐剂虽然具有低毒性、高活性等显著优势,但同时也存在细胞毒性、肝肾毒性等缺点。未来可以通过结构修饰,使皂苷达到减毒增效的目的,也可开发新的剂型,解决其溶血性和细胞毒性等问题,使其在疫苗应用中更加广泛。本文对皂苷佐剂活性的机理、优缺点,以及在疫苗产品上的应用研究进展进行综述,旨在为开发新型疫苗佐剂提供参考。

    Abstract:

    Saponins,as a kind of triterpenoid glycosides widely present in various plants,has been playing an important role in traditional Chinese medicine. Saponins are with a wide range of biological activities,especially immune regulation and immune stimulation,by which,the immune response in a body could be significantly enhanced. As an adjuvant,saponins could not only prolong the immune cycle of vaccines and reduce the number of inoculation,but also regulate the expression of related immune genes,and significantly up-regulate gene expression level of the factors of interferon regulatory and tumor necrosis. But such shortcomings as cytotoxicity,hepato toxicity and nephro toxicity are also present in the adjuvant,although it is with significant advantages such as low toxicity and high activity. In order to widely apply saponins to vaccines,their toxicity would be reduced and efficiency would be increased through structural modification,and new dosage forms would also be developed to solve the problems of hemolysis and cytotoxicity. In the paper,the mechanism,advantages and disadvantages of saponin adjuvant activity as well as the advances in its application in vaccine products were reviewed,with a view to providing a reference for the development of new vaccine adjuvants.

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孙超钰,刘燕华,李扛,戴书通,李铭东.皂苷作为疫苗免疫佐剂的研究进展[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2022,39(6):107-113.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-06-06
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