福建省宁化县山羊肠道寄生虫感染情况调查
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S858.27

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Investigation on the Infection with Goat Intestinal Parasites in Ninghua County,Fujian Province
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    摘要:

    为了解福建省宁化县山羊肠道寄生虫感染情况,采用饱和盐水漂浮法、自然沉淀法和麦克马斯特氏法,对采自宁化县8个乡镇16个羊场户的260份山羊粪便样品进行肠道寄生虫检查。结果显示:在8个场户的78份粪便样品中检出寄生虫虫卵或卵囊,平均场户寄生虫感染率为50.0%(8/16),个体寄生虫感染率为30.0%(78/260);检出线虫、球虫、吸虫3类寄生虫虫卵或卵囊,其中线虫个体感染率最高,为16.5%(43/260),虫卵数(EPG)为400~4 000,吸虫次之,为14.2%(37/260),EPG为500~1 000,球虫最低,为11.9%(31/260),卵囊数(OPG)为400~1 400,不同种类寄生虫个体感染率差异不显著(P>0.05);单一寄生虫感染占比为55.1%(43/78),混合感染占比为44.9%(35/78);水茜镇、曹坊镇、泉上镇个体感染率较高,均在80%以上,与其他乡镇差异显著(P≤0.05);放牧饲养场户的场群感染率为61.5%,个体感染率为60.9%,而舍饲场户均为0,不同饲养方式场户间感染率差异显著(P≤0.05);1岁以下山羊个体感染率为45.6%,1~2岁为28.6%,2岁以上为15.1%,不同年龄组间差异显著(P≤0.05);山羊未驱虫场户个体感染率为92.2%,已驱虫场户为14.8%,差异显著(P≤0.05),其中使用多种驱虫药的山羊群个体感染率为2.5%,而使用1~2种驱虫药的为27.9%~42.3%,差异显著(P≤0.05)。以上结果表明:宁化县山羊群中存在线虫、吸虫、球虫等多种肠道寄生虫感染,且以线虫感染为主;部分乡镇感染率高;放牧山羊及幼龄山羊感染较为严重;多种驱虫药联合使用的山羊群驱虫效果更佳。本调查结果为宁化县山羊肠道寄生虫病防控提供了科学依据和重要参考,提示养殖场户和主管部门通过改进饲养模式,制定科学驱虫方案,加强饲养管理和清洁消毒及联合用药等综合措施,可有效防控山羊肠道寄生虫病,提高山羊养殖效益。

    Abstract:

    In order to investigate the infection with goat intestinal parasites in Ninghua County,Fujian Province,260 feces samples collected from 16 goat farms/households in 8 townships were examined for intestinal parasites by saturated saline flotation,natural sedimentation and McMaster's method. The results showed that parasite eggs/oocysts were found in 78 samples from 8 farms/households,with an average infection rate of 50.0%(8/16)for farm/household and of 30.0%(78/260)for individual;three types of parasite eggs or oocysts were detected,including Nematodes,Coccidiodes and Trematodes,the individual infection rate of nematodes was highest(16.5%),and their number of eggs(EPG)was 400 to 4 000,followed by trematodes(14.2%),whose EPG was 500 to 1 000,then were Coccidiodes(11.9%),and their number of oocysts(OPG)was 400 to 1 400,not significant difference was observed in the individual infection rates of different parasites(P>0.05);the single parasite infection accounted for 55.1%(43/78),and the mixed infection was 44.9%(35/78);the individual infection rate was higher(over 80%)in Shuixi,Caofang and Quanshang townships,which was significantly different from that in other townships(P≤0.05);for the farms/households where goats were grazed,the infection rate at the farm/herd level was 61.5%,that at the individual level was 60.9%,for the premises where goats were fed in sheds,both the above rates were 0,the infection rate was significantly different(P≤0.05)depending on the feeding methods adopted by farms/households;the individual infection rate of goats under 1 year old was 45.6%,that of those between 1 and 2 years old was 28.6%,and that of those over 2 years old was 15.1%. Significant difference was observed in the groups at different ages(P≤0.05);the infection rate of the farms/households where goats were not dewormed was up to 92.2%,and that of the premises where goats were dewormed was 14.8%,with significant difference(P≤0.05),the individual infection rate of the premises where multiple anthelmintic drugs were administered was 2.5%,while that of those used one or two kinds of drugs ranged from 27.9% to 42.3%,with obvious difference(P≤0.05). In conclusion,Nematodes,Trematodes,Coccidiodes and other intestinal parasites were found in the goat population in the county,especially nematodes,and grazing goats and young goats were seriously infected,which should be dewormed by several drugs together. Accordingly,goat parasitic diseases should be controlled through developing a scientific pest control program for administering several drugs and taking comprehensive measures including strengthening feeding management,cleaning and disinfection,etc. A reference was thus provided for future prevention and control of goat parasitic diseases in Ninghua County.

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张莹.福建省宁化县山羊肠道寄生虫感染情况调查[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2022,39(11):12-16.

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