奶牛子宫炎的诊断、预警和新型预防治疗方法研究进展
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S857.2+1

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新疆维吾尔自治区现代畜禽种业提升专项资金项目(2022XM-21)


Advances in the Diagnosis,Early Warning and Treatment of Cow Metritis
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    摘要:

    奶牛子宫炎是影响养殖场效益的一大因素,其隐匿性强,发病率高,危害性大,严重影响奶牛繁殖能力。治疗奶牛子宫炎最常用的方法是抗生素疗法,但其存在细菌耐药性和抗生素残留的问题。而奶牛子宫炎防治的关键在于精准的诊断、尽早的预防和替抗疗法的使用。目前对于奶牛子宫炎诊断常用细胞学、直肠阴道检查、B超检查以及PCR等技术,未来需要寻求更加简便、快捷的诊断方法以及诊断标准。预警技术可尽早预测预防奶牛子宫炎发生,如指标预警和基因组预测,未来需要结合大样本量及当地环境来确认预警指标,以提高预警的准确度。越来越多的科研致力于开发“替抗”疗法,如用壳聚糖微粒、精油、臭氧、益生菌、疫苗和重组白细胞介素-8替代抗生素治疗,但仍需要进行大量的临床试验和效果评估,以真正解决抗生素残留问题。本文通过上述研究的概述,为奶牛子宫炎诊断、预防、治疗提供借鉴,为降低奶牛子宫炎发生率,减少细菌耐药性和抗生素残留,提高养殖效率提供技术支撑。

    Abstract:

    Cow metritis,with strong concealment,high incidence and great harm,seriously damages the reproductive capacity of dairy cows,and has been considered as one of the major factors restricting the benefits of farms. Against which,antibiotic therapy is commonly used,but its shortages in bacterial resistance and antibiotic residues are found. The key to prevent and control the disease relies on accurate diagnosis,early prevention and alternative therapy. For diagnosis,cytology,rectovaginal examination,B-ultrasonic examination and PCR assay are commonly used,but a more simple and rapid diagnostic method and diagnostic criteria are required. With early warning,such as indicator early warning and genome prediction,any occurrence of cow metritis could be predicted and prevented as early as possible,but early warning indicators should be confirmed in combination with large amount of samples and local environment to improve the accuracy of early warning. More scientific researches have focused on the development of“alternative antibiotics”therapy,such as replacement of antibiotics with chitosan particles,essential oil,ozone,probiotics,vaccines and recombinant interleukin-8,but a large number of clinical experiments and evaluation are still required to fully remove antibiotic residues. The overview of the above researches will provide a reference for the diagnosis,prevention and treatment of cow metritis,and supports for reducing the incidence rate,bacterial resistance and antibiotic residues,and for improving the efficiency of breeding.

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乔彦杰,李红欢,余梦环,徐坤,蒋松,邵永斌,连科迅,谷新利.奶牛子宫炎的诊断、预警和新型预防治疗方法研究进展[J].《中国动物检疫》编辑部,2023,40(1):95-101.

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